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172          MY    COUNTRY    AND    MY    PEOPLE

politics with morals.  The consequences are fairly satisfactory
for the family, but disastrous for the state.

Seen as a social system, it was consistent. It firmly believed
that a nation of good brothers and good friends should make
a good nation. Yet, seen in modern eyes, Confucianism omitted
out of the social relationships man's social obligations toward
the stranger, and great and catastrophic was the omission.
Samaritan virtue was unknown and practically discouraged.
Theoretically, it was provided for in the "doctrine of recipro-
city." Confucius said of the gentleman: "Wanting to be suc-
cessful himself, he helps others to be successful; wanting to stand
on his own feet, he helps others to stand on their feet." But this
relationship toward the "others" was not one of the five cardinal
relationships, and not so clearly defined. The family, with its
friends, became a walled castle, with the greatest communistic
co-operation and mutual help within, but coldly indifferent to-
ward, and fortified against, the world without. In the end, as it
worked out, the family became a walled castle outside which
everything is legitimate loot.

III. NEPOTISM, CORRUPTION AND MANNERS

Every family in China is really a communistic unit, with
the principle of "do what you can and take what you need"
guiding its functions. Mutual helpfulness is developed to a very
high degree, encouraged by a sense of moral obligation and
family honour. Sometimes a brother will cross the sea thousands
of miles away to redeem the honour of a bankrupt brother. A
well-placed and comparatively successful man generally con-
tributes the greater, if not the entire, share of the expenses of
the whole household, and it is common practice, worthy of
no special merit, for a man to send his nephews to school. A
successful man, if he is an official, always gives the best jobs to
his relatives, and if there are not ready jobs he can create
sinecure ones. Thus sinecurism and nepotism developed,
which, coupled with economic pressure, became an irresistible
force, undermining, rather than being undermined, by any
political reform movement. The force is so great that repeated